Soldier Power: A Growing Operational Concern
by MAJ Steven P. Meredith and MAJ David Bergmann
Soldiers with Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion, 23rd Infantry Regiment, conduct a dismounted presence patrol on 2 June 2013 in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. (Photo by SGT Shane Hamann)
“In World War II, it took one to two gallons of fuel per day to sustain a Soldier on the battlefield. Today, it takes 20 plus gallons per Soldier, per day.” — LTG Raymond V. Mason, Deputy Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, G4 Logistics
“Every time we deliver fuel or batteries on the battlefield, we put Soldiers at risk.” — Call for Action, signed by SMA Raymond F. Chandler III, Sergeant Major of the Army; GEN Raymond T. Odierno, Army Chief of Staff; and Hon. John M. McHugh, Secretary of the Army
With the proliferation of Soldier and squad-borne technologies, Soldier power solutions are becoming a critical operational concern. Without access to adequate power, the Army’s dismounted unit capabilities rapidly become degraded on the battlefield. The Army prides itself on providing its Soldiers with the most technologically advanced equipment that overmatches potential enemies’ systems and weapons. However, technological overmatch is unlikely if Soldiers are unable to power these systems. This article explores some of the current and emerging power and battery limitations and potential developmental solutions.
Operational Energy — Meeting a Growing Demand
It is one thing to create a battery that provides twice the amount of power within the same package, but when Soldiers already conduct battery swaps more than seven times over a 72-hour mission, this does not eliminate the need to carry spare batteries or recharge them. Additionally, with the given state of small, lightweight power generation technologies, current batteries cannot be charged rapidly enough to fully self-sustain the unit.
In an effort to address potential energy shortages and logistical challenges, the Army is exploring a wide range of solutions to sustain the force through an operational energy initiative. Operational energy initiatives at the small unit level are reducing the frequency of resupply (both aerial and ground), the number of batteries Soldiers must carry, how often Soldiers must replace their batteries, and providing solutions to better manage the power they do have. The ultimate goal of the operational energy initiative is to improve combat effectiveness by becoming “net zero” — thereby saving Soldiers’ lives and reducing Soldier load. Net zero at the small unit level is the ability for Soldiers to produce sufficient energy to power their own individual equipment, reducing the need for resupply related to power demand. The Army continues to seek revolutionary solutions to generate power on-site, reduce system power demand, and eliminate the need for spare batteries. Eventually, the Army will measure power-source life in terms of weeks and months rather than hours and days.
The Maneuver Center of Excellence’s vision is to provide every Soldier with the ability to wirelessly power every system within a one-meter radius of a centrally worn power source and create a power surplus at each echelon. The less power Soldiers use, the more power they preserve; the more efficiently power is produced, the smaller the cumulative power demand is on the squad. The same concept is true from squad to platoon, platoon to company, etc. In turn, the next higher echelon would require a lighter, more agile power generation solution to support the power demand. For example, to meet the power demand a platoon could use a lightweight, compact 500-watt solar blanket as opposed to a heavier 900-watt generator. Or, a squad could use a lightweight solid oxide fuel cell instead of a cumbersome solar blanket, which requires sunlight. Regardless of the ultimate materiel solution, the objective is to increase the small unit’s ability to gain and maintain contact with the enemy by lightening Soldier load, increasing unit self-sustainability and self-sufficiency, and reducing the frequency of mission interruptions due to resupply operations and battery swaps.
Today’s Operational Energy Challenge
Soldiers are unnecessarily placed in danger due to the frequency of exchanging batteries and exhaustion from carrying additional weight. Excessive loads, in both weight and bulk, negatively impact the mobility, lethality, survivability, and combat effectiveness of Soldiers and small units. More physical energy is expended to perform each assigned task. The fatigue resulting from heavy loads decreases a Soldier’s alertness and ability to move quickly thereby making the Soldier and small unit more vulnerable. Reduced mobility requires small units to travel shorter durations and distances between routine resupply. Additionally, excessive loads may dictate which route a unit takes, potentially exposing them to threats.
The mass proliferation of Soldier-networked radios, advanced Soldier-borne sensors, optics, and targeting devices requires a holistic approach to Soldier energy, with a focus on intelligent power management, low power electronics, and networked Smart Battlefield Energy on-Demand (smartBED) solutions. Included in this approach are both advanced energy sources and improvements in managing energy use and consumption by new Soldier-borne devices. This ensures dismounted small units and Soldiers will be better postured to conduct sustained combat operations in austere environments.
The dismounted Infantryman or scout deployed in Afghanistan carries roughly 9.7 pounds of batteries. Soldiers are unable to recharge these batteries when they are not in or near a vehicle or have access to power from a combat outpost or forward operating base. This situation will become increasingly challenging as Soldiers are brought into the network.
Battery weight will likely increase to more than 14 pounds for a 72-hour mission if every Soldier is brought into the network. This weight increase will inevitably force small unit leaders to make tough decisions to either leave equipment behind or further burden their Soldiers with more weight. As most of these systems have battery durations of eight hours or less, Soldiers will have to make approximately seven battery exchanges for each of their systems over the course of the mission. These battery exchanges could occur during decisive actions, not only reducing the effectiveness of that Soldier and the small unit but also compromising mission accomplishment.
The following are examples of the solutions the Army is researching and developing to help maintain sufficient operational energy at the small unit level.
Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS)
Powering multiple Soldier-borne devices by a central conformal battery is one way the operational energy community is trying to solve the energy limitations. The ISPDS will eliminate the need for spare batteries for each individual system. This central battery is flexible, lightweight, and provides significant improvement in power duration.
The first generation of ISPDS and conformal batteries were evaluated at the Network Integration Evaluation (NIE) 13.1 with enormously positive results. During NIE 13.1, Soldiers were able to operate for more than 24 hours without having to exchange a single radio or Nett Warrior end user device (EUD) battery. This reduced the number of batteries Soldiers had to carry and increased their confidence that systems would have sufficient power when required. Without the conformal battery and cables, the radio and EUD only lasted four to six hours. The short battery durations dictated numerous battery exchanges while engaged with the enemy. There were times when Soldiers had no power to operate their communication devices to coordinate for unit enablers (adjacent units, fire support, etc.).
Battery Charging and Power Generation
Although the conformal battery and power distribution system showed significant promise for enhancing Soldier power, the Army recognizes this is not enough. This alone will not reduce energy demand required by dismounted Soldiers and units. To become net zero, the conformal battery needs to be charged daily. Currently, this can only be done using a vehicle or while in a secure location like a forward operating base that has inherent generator support. To help remedy this issue, the Army is working on a lightweight, man-portable battery charger that can charge numerous battery types simultaneously, including the conformal battery, using various power generation inputs such as solar energy.
Another solution is providing a power distribution and management device in conjunction with a solar blanket or folding solar panels that can recharge batteries or directly provide power to small electronic systems. This power management device can scavenge power from almost any available energy source (AC, DC, vehicle, solar, etc.) and convert it into useable power for Army communications and electronics devices. It can transfer power from batteries to other batteries and systems allowing for more flexibility for the unit. Recently, the 1st Brigade Combat Team of the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Afghanistan with this capability within the 3rd Squadron, 73rd Cavalry. Although the first generation solar technology did not allow for rapid battery charging, the power management device did allow them to transfer power from partially depleted disposable batteries to rechargeable batteries and devices, thereby reducing wasted energy that would normally be lost when a battery is replaced before being depleted of energy or thrown away. This device allowed a mortar position to operate continuously without battery resupply — an enormous benefit to the unit in that it could only receive aerial resupply.
The currently fielded state of solar technology provides a good backup at a secure location when fuel is unavailable or impractical such as while a squad is occupying a combat outpost; however, current solar technology does not provide enough power to support the Soldier indefinitely at the tactical edge. Soldiers in Afghanistan and at the NIE have harnessed solar power and used this energy to power their personal devices. This level of confidence and trust in solar panels is witnessed at home station as well and is demonstrated by large numbers of Soldiers who use solar panels to charge their personal devices while camping, hiking, or at the beach. Even with the current success of solar technologies, further development is required for lightweight, flexible solar technology to become a viable solution for the dismounted Soldier and offset the large quantities of batteries now required.
As technology improves, kinetic energy could prove to be a viable option to further reduce the dependency on fuel, allowing more autonomy in small units. Harnessing the kinetic energy generated from Soldier movement is another way to improve operational energy efforts. This would provide energy to the conformal battery and other electronic devices. Possible locations for capturing this kinetic energy are the assault pack, rucksack, or the Soldier’s leg. Early prototypes of these technologies demonstrated potential; however, the energy produced did not merit the additional burden on the Soldier at this time.
Culture Change — Cultivating Positive Mindsets
Though this article has mainly focused on the materiel aspects of operational power, non-materiel solutions are just as important in addressing the power challenges of today and the future. Army culture and individual attitudes must change if the Army intends to overcome its operational power challenge by reducing power demand and using power more efficiently. Finding non-materiel solutions to this operational concern can only be accomplished through educating our Soldiers and leaders, developing their confidence in newly established operational power practices, and making these new practices routine and habitual.
Army leaders and Soldiers must be educated so they understand the positive and negative impacts of their actions from an operational power and energy perspective. To accomplish this, institutional courses from initial entry level training through senior leader courses must include operational power and energy as it relates to their levels of responsibility and accountability. Education must include strategic, operational, and tactical impacts; it must also include power and energy operating fundamentals, principals, and best practices. Operational power and energy impacts every principle of war, warfighting function, formation, and form of maneuver across the operational environment. There is not a single aspect of the profession of arms untouched by operational power and energy. It is important; it is ubiquitous; and it can be the difference between winning and losing. Education is the starting point for changing the current Army culture and attitudes, but it is not the ending point.
The Army must make the paradigm shift toward operational power and energy an enduring consideration. This is not a fad, here today and gone tomorrow. To achieve permanence, the Army must prove that real progress in all indices of operational power and energy can be achieved by changing its institutional and individual behaviors. From these demonstrated and marked improvements in operational power and energy, individual confidence will take root and grow. Success will encourage expansion of operational power and energy best practices and further solidify the confidence Soldiers and leaders have for future improvements. Finally, a culminating point is achieved when operational power and energy best practices and a “net zero” state become the norm. This must be the enduring end state of operational power and energy in the Army.
The Way Ahead — Creating Power and Energy Solutions for the Future
Power and energy represents a unique challenge to Soldiers, units, and the Army at large. With the advent and proliferation of advanced technologies, the Army becomes more reliant on power to sustain operations.
Advancements must continue in rechargeable and non-rechargeable battery designs and chemistries. It is likely that electro-chemical batteries, particularly rechargeable batteries, will remain the primary means for Soldier power and energy for decades to come. Battery modernization may be achieved through investment in science and technology such as advanced high density battery improvements, nanotechnology applications to battery materials and design, lithium-based battery improvements, and the capability for rapid recharging. Improved battery density will reduce battery size and weight, thereby improving operational effectiveness and unit self-sufficiency. There will be a continuing need to adapt advanced battery technologies for Soldiers through ergonomic design of conformal batteries. Other focus areas include enhanced battery designs, intelligent power management, SmartBED apps, wireless energy sensing and wireless energy transfer, fuel cell use of JP-8, energy systems integrated with other systems (clothing and protection), and novel energy harvesting sources.
The Army is also exploring the use of computing, networking, and analysis tools to automate Soldier power management and controls. For example, when a Soldier sits in a vehicle seat, the vehicle’s intelligent power management systems activates embedded seat sensors to analyze the Soldier’s energy reserves. The sensors then activate the seat’s embedded wireless charging pads and passively bring systems to a full state of charge.
To take advantage of this new paradigm, there must be novel approaches to Soldier-borne power and energy sources and a strategic imperative for energy demand-side management. There are opportunities to harvest Soldier-energy from numerous sources such as solid state energy conversion devices, micro-combustors, and from physiological motion and reactions. These approaches will be essential to enable the Soldier systems of the future. Wireless energy transfer will align with wireless information exchange. Opportunities exist to integrate power storage and harvesting into revolutionary concepts in Soldier protection and clothing systems, thereby easing Soldier power and energy supply demands and overall Soldier load.
For the near future, operational power and energy demands will continue to increase rather than decrease. Consequently, finding viable solutions are a driving force behind the growing Army support and activity in power-related research and development. As a result, advancement in Soldier power and energy solutions are an integral element of the Army’s operational energy requirements document and the soon-to-be-published Army Campaign Plan.
At the time this article was written, MAJ Stephen P. Meredith was serving as branch chief, Operational Energy, Soldier Division, Capabilities Development and Integration Directorate, MCoE, Fort Benning, Ga. His previous assignments include serving as assistant program manager, Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T), Program Executive Office (PEO) for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Md.; deputy product director, Test Equipment, Strategy, and Support, Joint Project Manager NBC Contamination Avoidance, Joint PEO Chem Bio Defense, APG; assistant brigade engineer, 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Germany; and assistant task force engineer, 1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas. MAJ Meredith earned a bachelor’s degree in kinesiology from Stephen F. Austin State University and a master’s degree from Webster University in St. Louis, Mo.
MAJ David Bergmann is currently serving as assistant TRADOC Capabilities Manager, Soldier Division, MCoE, Fort Benning. His previous assignments include serving as commander of Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 2nd Squadron, 16th Cavalry, Fort Knox, Ky.; an instructor with the Armor Basic Officer Leaders Course, 2-16 CAV, Fort Knox; executive officer for B Troop, 1st Squadron, 14th Cavalry, Fort Lewis, Wash.; and platoon leader in B Troop, 1-14 CAV, Fort Lewis. MAJ Bergmann graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., with a bachelor’s degree in computer science.